Because lung cancer develops in the lungs, as you’d probably expect, its most common symptoms involve the lungs. Persistent coughing, coughing up blood or excess mucus, shortness of breath, and chest pain are all common signs of lung cancer. The presence of these symptoms doesn’t definitively mean you have lung cancer, though, as they can also be caused by other conditions. That’s why it’s important to be evaluated by your doctor sooner rather than later.
Here are seven other symptoms of lung cancer that don’t have anything to do with the lungs:
1. Clubbing of the Fingernails and/or Toenails
Clubbing, or enlargement, of the tip of the finger or toe, occurs when excess soft tissue forms under the nail beds. This causes a change in how the nails emerge from the nail bed. In a normal finger or toe, there is a slight “V”-shaped angle between the nail and the nail bed. In a clubbed finger or toe, there is no “V”-shaped angle, because the tissue has built up and covered that area.
Clubbing occurs in many conditions, including lung cancer. One clue to doctors that clubbing could indicate lung cancer is when fingers are also nicotine-stained. Clubbing occurs in stages. In early-stage lung cancer finger clubbing, the nail bed may be soft and the skin next to it may be shiny; nails may appear more curved than usual when viewed from the side, and the ends of fingers may become larger than usual. Finger clubbing associated with advanced lung cancer may cause extra areas of bone to form along the finger joints and wrists. Clubbing is one of several symptoms caused by substances (such as hormones or proteins) secreted by cancer cells.
2. Arm and Shoulder Pain, Weakness and/or Numbness
Lung cancer can also spread from the top of the lung, causing tumors in the nerves of the arms and/or shoulders. These tumors are sometimes called Pancoast tumors. The symptoms associated with a Pancoast tumor are known as Pancoast syndrome. These symptoms include shoulder pain that radiates to the inner part of the scapula (the large, flat bone that covers the ribs on the back.) Pain may eventually extend to the inner arm, elbow, and pinky and ring fingers. Pancoast syndrome pain may become so severe that it requires prescription pain medications for relief.
3. Loss of or Hoarse Voice
Difficulty producing sounds or abnormal changes in speech sounds may be a symptom of early lung cancer. In advanced lung cancer cases, loss of voice or hoarseness is a common symptom that can be caused by several factors. Lung cancer may affect the nerves that controlling the larynx (voice box). Additionally, if a tumor expands to the area between the lungs, it can put pressure on the larynx. People with lung cancer often suffer from chronic coughing, which can also cause loss of voice.
4. Upper Body Swelling and Discoloration
As lung cancer spreads, it sometimes generates tumors that restrict the large vein that carries blood away from the head and arms, back to the heart. When this happens, blood flow slows causing blood to back up in the veins. The excess fluid may cause the face, neck, upper chest and arms to swell. The skin in these areas may also take on a bluish-red hue.
5. Extreme Thirst and Frequent Urination
Some lung cancer tumors create a protein that acts very similar to the parathyroid hormone produced by the parathyroid gland. The parathyroid gland and kidneys normally regulate calcium levels in the body. Cancer tumors can disrupt the process of regulating calcium, and lead to too much calcium into the bloodstream. Having a higher than usual level of calcium in the blood is called hypercalcemia, and about 10% to 20% of people with cancer develop hypercalcemia. High calcium levels are associated with being thirst and frequent urination.
6. Sudden Desire and Ability to Quit Smoking
This is certainly the most ironic lung-cancer warning sign. A 2011 study published in the Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer concluded that 48% of the 115 lung cancer patients they evaluated quit smoking spontaneously and with very little effort before they were diagnosed with lung cancer. The researchers believe that early lung cancer tumors may secrete a substance that blocks a nicotine addiction.
7. Horner Syndrome
Horner Syndrome is a condition that causes drooping of the eyelid, a small pupil and a lowered ability to perspire on one side of the face. This symptom is associated with advanced cases of lung cancer. It occurs after the cancer has spread into nerves in the neck. Once cancer has reached the nerves in the neck, one side effect is facial paralysis.
Whether you are a smoker or have never smoked in your life, it’s important to educate yourself on the common and uncommon signs and symptoms of lung cancer. Smokers and non-smokers are both at risk of developing this disease. The earlier a cancer is detected and diagnosed, the sooner treatment can begin. Know the symptoms to watch for and, even more importantly, know your body and trust your instincts! If you have any questions about the signs, symptoms, or diagnosis of lung cancer, contact our cancer specialists at Compass Oncology in the Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA areas.
Originally published April 2017. Updated December 2018.